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The most effective and accurate manuscripts of research projects are written as close as possible to the completion of the project. All too often, however, that important research project is followed too closely by another, such that the first oftentimes becomes buried in the stack of things I must do, and many important projects are never published. The experienced staff at Walker Downey & Associates, Inc. can help to alleviate your manuscript backlog.

Most of the major referred scientific journals expect that manuscripts be organized in the following manner:

  • Title
  • Name of author and affiliation
  • Abstract
  • Up to six keywords for indexing
  • Introduction
  • Experimental (methods, techniques, and materials studied)
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • Appendices
  • References
  • Captions for illustrations
  • Tables
  • Illustrations (figures and other artwork)

Walker Downey & Associates, Inc. recommends the following additional format to its manuscript preparation:


The title should accurately suggest the contents of the paper. It should attract interest without being excessively novel or cute, and it should not be too long.


The introduction should be independent of the title. No pronoun or noun in the opening sentences should depend for meaning on the title. It should interest the reader and catch his/her attention. It should properly establish the tone of the paper by stating the subject and purpose. It should be closely related to the main topic of the manuscript. It should not be too long.


The materials should be arranged in logical sequence with all technical terms explained. Paragraphs should not be choppy. Enough space should be devoted to main ideas, with minor ideas subordinated. Concrete details should be used when appropriate. Insufficient details should be omitted. 


The connections between sentences and those between paragraphs should be shown by good linking words.


The conclusion should usually contain a final statement of the underlying idea developed in the theme. The conclusion should not be a mere restatement of the introduction in different words. The paper should not end in vague and dull generalities. It should make a good final impression. The conclusion may require a separate paragraph. On the other hand, if the underlying idea is woven into each paragraph, a formal conclusion may be a waste of words.


Allow some time, if possible at least one day, between the last draft of the paper and the final finished copy. Then you can examine the paper objectively and look carefully for wordiness, repetition, incorrect diction, misspellings, poor punctuation, choppy sentences, vague sentences, lack of transitions, and foolish errors.

Please contact us to discuss how we may be of help.

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